Revision of failed, recurrent or complicated pectus excavatum after Nuss, Ravitch or cardiac surgery
Pectus excavatum (PE) can recur after both open and minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) techniques. The cause of recurrence may differ based on the initial repair procedure performed. Recurrence risks for the open repair are due to factors which include incomplete previous repair, repair at too young of age, excessive dissection, early removal or lack of support structures, and incomplete healing of the chest wall. For patients presenting after failed or recurrent primary MIRPE repair, issues with support bars including placement, number, migration, and premature removal can all be associated with failure. Connective tissue disorders can complicate and increase recurrence risk in both types of PE repairs. Identifying the factors that contributed to the previous procedure’s failure is critical for prevention of another recurrence. A combination of surgical techniques may be necessary to successfully repair some patients.