Management of intraoperative bleeding during minimally-invasive thoracic surgery
Video-assisted thoracic surgery has become the leading surgical approach for thoracic surgery in Asia, as it has previously been the case for many Western countries. Unexpected bleeding during minimally-invasive thoracic surgery may quickly turn into a fatal situation unless a recovery is successfully achieved. The best solution is primarily to avoid critical circumstances by means of preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation with the implementation of new technologies, i.e., 3D imaging and virtual reality. However, surgeons still need to be prepared for a potential crisis.