Article Abstract

Virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality in surgical planning for video or robotically assisted thoracoscopic anatomic resections for treatment of lung cancer

Authors: Leonardo Frajhof, João Borges, Elias Hoffmann, Jorge Lopes, Rui Haddad


Virtual reality (VR), mixed reality (MR) and augmented reality (AR) are new ways of interaction with three-dimensional (3D) elements. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and robotic VATS (RVATS) anatomic pulmonary resections benefit from 3D understanding of the patient’s anatomy. These procedures demand precision and planning for improved outcomes mainly for conservative surgery as sub-lobar anatomic resections. Display of patient’s 3D data through VR, MR and AR is a useful tool for surgical planning by providing the surgeon with a true and spatially accurate representation of the patient’s anatomy. An illustrative case is presented to exemplify the application of this new technology.