Surgical treatment of acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistulas
Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) are a challenging condition which most often arises as a result of iatrogenic injury. Most common causes are prolonged intubation and esophageal or laryngeal surgery. Endoscopic intervention with esophageal or tracheal stenting is of unproven benefit in the management of such lesions, whereas surgical repair is almost invariably required. In this paper, the principles of surgical management of TEFs are described, including preoperative preparation, operative techniques and postoperative care.