Endoscopic Port AccessTM left ventricle outflow tract resection and atrioventricular valve surgery
The continuous evolution in robotic-, endoscopic- and trans-catheter cardiac interventions resulted in innovative techniques that simultaneously address left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) and concomitant atrioventricular valve (AVV) pathology in the context of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). We present our brief report of 13 consecutive HOCM patients with concomitant AVV disease, who underwent endoscopic left ventricular septal myomectomy (LVSM) and AVV surgery by Endoscopic Port AccessTM Surgery (EPAS) between March 1st 2010 and October 31st 2015. Our EPAS technique in the context of HOCM utilizes peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass, endo-aortic balloon occlusion and a 4-cm right antero-lateral thoracic working port. Access to the LVOTO is obtained by detaching the anterior mitral valve (MV) leaflet from the annulus. Controlled sharp LVSM is then performed from the aortic leaflet base to the papillary muscles. Subsequent routine AVV surgery is performed using long shafted instruments. There were no sternotomy conversions, LVSM complications or 30-day mortalities. The mean length of hospitalization was 17.7±18.1 days. Long-term clinical and echocardiographic analysis of 645.7 patient-months (n=13, 100.0% complete) identified two late mortalities, which were not procedure-, HOCM- or AVV-related. All patients (n=13, 100.0%), including the late mortalities, had significant improvement in their quality of life, a 100% long-term freedom from re-intervention and no residual peak instantaneous LVOTO gradients more than 15 mmHg. This brief report emphasises that simultaneous LVSM and concomitant AVV surgery by EPAS can safely be performed in experienced centres with favourable long-term outcomes.