Cerebral perfusion issues in type A aortic dissection
Stroke events are very common in acute type A aortic dissection. Cerebral malperfusion could manifest at presentation due to prolonged arch vessels hypoperfusion or develop after surgery for inadequate cerebral protection during arch repair. To reduce this detrimental complication there are several adjuncts that can be adopted for cerebral protection such as direct antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) and use period of deep to moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest time; however, they are often insufficient as preoperative malperfusion already caused irreversible ischemic damages. The aim of the current review article is to analyze the principal series reporting on neurological injuries during type A aortic dissection to focus on the outcomes according to the type of surgical management and identify possible predictors to better manage this complication.