Malperfusion syndromes in type A aortic dissection: what we have learned from IRAD
Patients presenting with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD) complicated by malperfusion syndromes represent one of the highest surgical risk cohorts for cardiovascular surgeons. In the setting of aortic dissection, end-organ ischemia may involve any of the major arterial side branches resulting in myocardial, cerebral, spinal cord, visceral and/or limb ischemia. In TAAD patients with malperfusion, notwithstanding continuous improvement in diagnostic and management strategies, surgical and clinical outcomes remain poor and the optimal therapy is controversial. The present review aimed to assess current evidence on TAAD patients with the complication of malperfusion, as enunciated by the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) investigators.