Indocyanine green fluorescence-navigated thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy

Mingyon Mun, Sakae Okumura, Masayuki Nakao, Yosuke Matsuura, Ken Nakagawa


Background: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy (TS-S) using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) reconstruction and indocyanine green-fluorescence (ICGF) navigation.
Methods: Twenty TS-S procedures were performed for 15 primary lung cancers and 5 metastatic lung tumors. Preoperatively we evaluated the target segmental pulmonary artery and created a virtual intersegmental plane using 3D-CT reconstruction. Intraoperatively, the target segmental artery and bronchus were divided, and after intravenous systemic injection of indocyanine green (ICG, 0.25 mg/kg), ICGF of the non-target segments (NTS) was observed using infrared thoracoscopy (KARL STORZ Endoskope Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan). We marked the border between target and NTS with electrocautery and divided the lung parenchyma along this border using electrocautery or staples. Strength of contrast between target and NTS was quantified as contrast index (CI) and compared over time.
Results: ICGF provided demarcation of sufficient clarity and duration to mark the lung surface in 19 patients (95%). TS-S was successfully performed in all patients. Mean operative duration was 186 min (90–310 min) and mean blood loss was 30 mL (0–107 mL). Demarcation appeared 20 s (10–100 s) after injection of ICG, and ICGF lasted 180 s (90–300 s). CI peaked 30 s after the appearance of ICGF and decreased over time. Effective contrast continued for 70 s (30–116 s), which was sufficient to mark the line of demarcation. There were no complications attributable to this method.
Conclusions: ICGF navigation is a safe and effective technique for TS-S.