Minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer is the malignant tumor arising from the esophagus and has a poor prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the main subtypes of esophageal cancer with different risk factors. In the early stage, surgical resection is the most curative treatment modality. However, the procedure is considered an advanced and technically demanding surgery because esophageal cancer surgery includes esophagectomy, lymph node dissection, and a creation of esophageal conduit. Stomach is the commonest organ for the esophageal substitute. In open procedures, pulmonary complications and anastomotic failure are the most severe problems. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has been introduced to decrease the postoperative pulmonary complications, but anastomotic failure remains a serious issue because of the extra-anatomical anastomosis between the esophagus and the conduit in the thorax or the neck.